During the great fratricidal wars that smashed Europe with the optimistic belief in unswerving human progress during the early part of the 20th century, a parallel conflict tore Australia asunder. It comprised of the two fiercely-fought campaigns that preceded referenda on conscription.
A factor that wove through these political battles, and arguably proved to be the clincher for the “NO” camp, was the fear of NON-white labour would be needed to fill the vacuum created by shipping reluctant Australians off to the European slaughterhouses.
A further horror filling Australian minds, was that of the miscegenation that would be brought in to train NON-white labour forces. This would be — according to the thinking of the day — nothing less than an offence against nature itself. These were fears that the opponents of conscription, including Ben Chifley, the man who would become one of
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